Glossary of Terms

 

  • ACOP: Approved Code of Practice

  • ADR: European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (see RID)

  • ALARP: As Low as Reasonably Practicable (see SFAIRP)

  • AQMS: Air quality monitoring station

  • Agenda 21: An action plan for the 21st Century produced at the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. It brings together economic, environmental and social concerns into a plan for more sustainable living

  • BANANA: Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone

  • BAT(NEEC): Best Available Technique (Not Entailing Excessive Cost)

  • BMA: British Medical Association

  • BOHS: British Occupational Hygiene Society

  • BPEO: Best Practicable Environmental Option

  • BSI: British Standards Institute

  • BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand: the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microbiological activity when a sample is incubated for 5 days at 20 Deg C

  • BPEO: Best Practicable Environmental Option

  • BTS: British Toxicology Society

  • C(WP): Construction (Work Place) Regulations

  • CATNAP: Cheapest Available Techniques Narrowly Avoiding Prosecution

  • CATNIP: Cheapest Available Techniques Not Involving Prosecution

  • CBI: Confederation of British Industry

  • CDG: The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Regulations

  • CDM: Construction (Design & Management) Regulations

  • CE: The letters "CE" do not represent any specific words but the mark is a declaration by the manufacturer, indicating that the product satisfies all relevant European Directives. Note, however, that the mark only applies to products that fall within the scope of European Directives.

  • CFC: Chlorofluorocarbons

  • CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute Amount of air flowing through a given space in one minute 1 CFM approximately equals 2 litres per second (l/s)

  • CHIP: Chemical Hazards Information and Packaging

  • CO: Carbon Monoxide

  • CO2: Carbon Dioxide

  • COMAH: Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations

  • CONIAC: Construction Industry Advisory Committee

  • COSHH: Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations

  • CNS: Central Nervous System

  • CRT: Cathode Ray Tube

  • CTS: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • CVD: Cardiovascular Disease

  • DB: Decibel

  • DDA: Disability Discrimination Act

  • DSE: Display Screen Equipment

  • DSEAR: Dangerous Substances & Explosive Atmosphere Regulations

  • EA: Environmental Agency

  • EAW: Electricity at Work Regulations

  • EHO: Environmental Health Officer

  • EMAS: Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

  • EMAS: Employment Medical Advisory Service

  • FA: Factories Act

  • FH(G): Food Hygiene (General) Regulations

  • FLT: Fork Lift Truck

  • FPA: Fire Precautions Act

  • FPWR: Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations

  • GMC: General Medical Council

  • HAZCHEM: Hazardous Chemical Warning Signs

  • HSC: Health & Safety Commission

  • HSDSER: Health & Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations

  • HSE: Health & Safety Executive

  • HASWA: Health & Safety at Work Act

  • ICOH: International Commission on Occupational Health

  • IOSH: Institution of Occupational Safety & Health

  • LOLER: Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations

  • LPG: Liquid Petroleum Gas

  • MAPP: Major Accident Prevention Policy

  • MEL: Maximum Exposure Limit

  • MHOR: Manual Handling Operation Regulations

  • MHSWR: Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations

  • MSD: Musculoskeletal Disorder

  • MSDS: Material Data Safety Sheet

  • NAWR: Noise at Work Regulations

  • NEBOSH: National Examination Board of Occupational Safety and Health

  • NIHL: Noise Induced Hearing Loss

  • OHSAS: 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System Standard

  • OSRPA: Offices Shops & Railway Premises Act

  • PAT: Portable Appliance Test

  • PPE: Personal Protective Equipment

  • PPEWR: Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations

  • Ppb: Parts Per Billion

  • Ppm: Parts Per Million

  • PUWER: Provision & Use of Work Equipment Regulations

  • QA: Quality Assurance

  • QC: Quality Control

  • RCD: Residual Current Device

  • RID: European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (see ADR)

  • RIDDOR: Reporting of Injuries, Disease & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations

  • RITA: Record of In-Training Assessment

  • RoSPA: Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents

  • RPE: Respiratory Protective Equipment

  • RPA: Radiation Protection Adviser

  • RSI: Repetitive Strain Injury

  • SBS: Sick Building Syndrome

  • SFAIRP: So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable (see ALARP)

  • VDU: Visual Display Unit

  • WHO: World Health Organisation

  • WHSWR: Workplace (Health Safety & Welfare) Regulations

  • WRULD: Work Related Upper Limb Disorder

 

Terms used in EHS

  • Accident: An undesired event resulting in death, injury, damage to health, damage to property or other form of loss

  • Abnormal Event: An unplanned, unusual, occurrence or emergency

  • Aerosols: Substance dispersed into the air such that the droplets or particles remain in suspension for a significant period of time

  • Air Exchange Rate: The rate at which inside air is replaced by outside air. The rate may be expressed as the number of changes of air per unit of time (e.g. Air Changes per Hour - ACH) or the volume of air exchanged per unit of time (e.g. Cubic Feet per minute (CFM)

  • Allergen: Substance causing an allergic reaction in a person who is sensitive to that substance

  • Ambient: Surrounding, e.g. Ambient temperature usually means the outside temperature

  • Anthropometric Dimensions: The dimensions of the human body. These may be static measurements (i.e. when the subject is standing or seated) or functional (i.e. when the person assumes an unnatural posture)

  • Apparent Loudness: Measurement in decibels of sound pressure measured against the threshold of hearing, being 0 decibels. The pain threshold is 120 decibels and an increase of 3 decibels is perceived as doubling in loudness

  • Appointed Person: A person who has been nominated to take charge in the event of an accident or illness (and support designated first aiders if present) and has been trained in basic lifesaving first aid techniques (See Designated Person)

  • Approved Code of Practice: A code of practice, associated with specific regulations, that has been approved by the Health & Safety Commission. A Code of Practice is seen as the accepted standard and can be used as evidence in a court of law. It is not mandatory to follow a Code of Practice but, to be acceptable, any alternative must be demonstrated to be of equal measure or better.

  • Asbestos: Hydrated magnesium silicate in fibrous form

  • Audible Range: Normal hearing frequency, approximately 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz

  • Best Practice: A standard of risk control that is above the legal minimum

  • Carcinogen: Substance that is known or suspected of causing cancer

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A chronic disorder of the hand and wrist possibly resulting from repetitive work involving repeated wrist flexion or extension

  • Chronic: Occurring over an extended period of time

  • Code of Practice: Rules established by regulatory bodies or trade associations, which are intended as a guide to acceptable behaviour. As such they do not have the force of law behind them

  • Common Law: Source of law that is not written in statute but which has been developed through judicial precedent. A breach of common law could result in a criminal offence or a civil action for damages

  • Competent Person: A person who is appropriately trained, qualified, experienced and skilled to undertake specific health and safety duties without risk to their own safety or that of others

  • Contrast: The difference in brightness between the subject (e.g. text) and the background against which it is viewed

  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Regulations promoting safe working with potentially hazardous chemicals

  • Designated Person: A person who has been designated as a first aider at work and has been trained to have the knowledge and confidence to deal with any first aid emergency (See Appointed Person)

  • Display Screen Equipment: Any alphanumeric or graphic display screen regardless of the process employed to display the information. Typical examples include computer monitors and microfilm viewers

  • Ergonomics: The application of information about human characteristics to design applications, e.g. equipment, tools, work tasks, with the aim of improving safety and efficiency

  • Fatigue: Transient reduced ability to work as a result of previous activity, resulting in reduced efficiency

  • Fires: Class A - Fires in ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, etc. Class B - Fires in flammable liquids and liquefiable solids or electrical fires. Class C - Fires involving gases. Class D - Fires involving combustible metals such as potassium or sodium. Class F - Fires involving cooking oils or fats

  • Good Practice: HSE Definition: Those standards for controlling risk which have been judged and recognised by the HSE as satisfying the law when applied to a particular relevant case in an appropriate manner

  • Hazard: Potential for harmful effects

  • Health And Safety Executive: Organisation responsible for proposing safety regulations throughout the UK. It is responsible for enforcing, statute, regulations, approved codes of practice and guidance

  • Incident (or Near Miss): A generic term for those events that do not cause harm but which might have done so under different circumstances

  • Ingestion: Taking a substance into the body through the mouth, for example in the form of food or drink - one of the Routes of Entry

  • Liquid Petroleum Gas: LPG consists of commercial Butane, Propane or a mixture of the two. Major hazards are fire and explosion, though asphyxiation is also a danger in low lying areas due to LPG being heavier than air

  • Lock-Off: Mechanisms that, as part of engineering controls, are designed to prevent potentially dangerous equipment from being energised during routine maintenance and/or repair work

  • Lumbar Spine: The lower 5 vertebrae of the spine, situated below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae

  • Manual Handling Operations: Tasks that require a person to exert force in order to lift, lower, push, pull, move, carry, hold or restrain an object

  • Material Data Safety Sheet: Contain information on the hazards associated with a chemical, along with guidance on its safe use

  • Mutagen: Something that is able to cause a mutation (or genetic change) in a living cell

  • Narcotic: A substance that has the potential to affect the nervous system by, for example, inducing drowsiness, stupor or insensibility

  • Persistence: Remaining for an extended period of time. Applicable to some chemicals (e.g. DDT) that do not easily break down into less hazardous substances

  • Parts per Billion: Specifies the concentration by volume of a substance dispersed in another substance

  • Parts Per Million: Specifies the concentration by volume of a substance dispersed in another substance

  • Permit to Work: Formally delivered criteria for control/risk reduction when undertaking pre-planned work that is hazardous, either because of its location or the nature of the activity

  • Policy: A statement of an organisation?s strategy for achieving a safe and healthy working environment and the responsibility, organisation and arrangements for pursuing and implementing the strategy

  • Preventive Maintenance: Maintenance (including inspection, cleaning, and repair) of equipment on a regular basis that is sufficient to prevent unplanned failure

  • Prohibition Notice: A statutory notice that is issued by an authorising body such as Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Environmental Health Officer (EHO) or Fire Officer on discovery of a breach of statute that presents a risk of serious personal accident. The effect of the Prohibition Notice is to stop the activity from starting or to cause it to cease if it has already started

  • Residual Current Device: An electrical safety device that constantly monitors the electric current flowing through a circuit. If it senses a loss of current where electricity is being diverted to earth (as might happen if a person touches a live conductor), it rapidly shuts down the power

  • Relative Humidity: The percentage ratio of vapour pressure in the atmosphere compared to the saturated vapour pressure at that temperature

  • Risk: A quantifiable expression of the likelihood of injury or harm resulting from a hazard

  • Risk Assessment: A formal estimation of the likelihood that persons may suffer injury or adverse health effects as a result of identified hazards

  • Risk Management: The introduction of change or control measures with the intention of eliminating or bringing the level of risk associated with a hazard within acceptable limits

  • Safe System of Work: A method of working designed to eliminate, if possible, or otherwise reduce risks to health and safety

  • Sensitizer: Substance that may cause a person to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposure

  • Solubility: Ability of a substance to dissolve in a liquid

  • Solvent: Substance that is capable of dissolving another substance

  • Stress: That which might result when an event or situation places increased demand on a person's mental or emotional resources. Sources of stress may arise from domestic or social situations as well as occupational circumstances.The individual's response to such situations can lead to health and safety related problems such as depression, cardiovascular disease, musculo-skeletal disorders and an increased tendency to be accident-prone

  • Tenosynovitis: Inflammation and swelling of the tendon sheaths, usually of the wrist or hand, potentially caused by repetitive movements such as very high-speed typing rates

  • Thoracic Spine: The mid and upper regions of the back, comprising 12 vertebrae that occupy the same level as the rib cage

  • Toxic: Substances that cause irritation or are otherwise harmful to health, such as carcinogens and poisons

  • Toxicity: The potential for a substance to be harmful to health

  • Vapour: The gaseous form of a substance that is normally liquid or solid at room temperature

  • Workplace Exposure Limit: Established concentration of a substance that, if not exceeded, will not normally result in adverse effects to persons who are exposed

  • Workstation: The combination of equipment items that a user requires to fulfil their allotted tasks. In Display Screen Equipment terms, the components might include: desk, chair, computer monitor, keyboard, processing unit and such ancillary equipment as required by the work, such as document holder or telephone